Friday, February 07, 2020

Sermons on Psalm 118[119]

An Orthodox Funeral, at which is chanted Psalm 118

In August 2014, I began a series of sermons on Psalm 118 (in the Septuagint, Psalm 119 in Protestant translations), and have preached an average of 4 sermons a year on this Psalm, and so after 5 1/2 years, I have finally finished the series. Here is the text of the Psalm, with the sermons at the end of each of the 22 sections, which in the Hebrew text consist of 8 lines each, and in each section the lines all begin with the letter of the Hebrew alphabet which correspond to that section. This is thus an acrostic Psalm, and the longest chapter in the Bible.

I drew heavily upon St. Theophan the Recluse's commentary on Psalm 118, but also on Blessed Theodoret, St. Augustine, and Cassiodorus, as well as some the occasional commentaries of some other saints. I would strongly recommend reading all of these commentaries, but if you were looking for a single source on Psalm 118, St. Theophan's commentary is the one to get.

St. John of Shanghai's words on the importance of the Psalms in general and of this Psalm in particular are mentioned several times in the various sermons below:
"Perhaps it will happen that you will die without having once in your life read in full the Psalter of David... You will die, and only then will good people read over your lifeless body this holy Psalter, which you had no time even, to open while you lived on earth! Only then, at your burial, will they sing over you the wondrously instructive, sweetly-wise-but alas, to you completely unknown-words of David: Blessed are the undefiled in the way, who walk in the law of the Lord... Blessed are they who search His testimonies. who keep His revelations, and seek Him with their whole heart. Do you hear: Blessed are they who search His testimonies, seek out the revelations of the Lord; and you had no time even to think of them! What will your poor soul feel then, your soul to which every word of the Psalmist, repeated by a reader or singer over your coffin, will sound as a strict reproach that you never read this sacred book?... Open now, before it is too late, this wondrous book of the Prophet King. Open it and read with attention at least this 118th Psalm, and you will involuntarily feel that your heart becomes humble, soft, that in the words of David are the words of the merit of God, and you will repeat involuntarily, many times, with sighing of heart, the verse of this Psalm: I have gone astray like a sheep that is lost; seek out Thy slave, Lord!" (from his weekly diocesan bulletin (Shanghai, November 24, 1941, no. 503, emphasis added).

א
Aleph

Blessed are the blameless in the way, who walk in the law of the Lord.  Blessed are they that search out His testimonies; with their whole heart shall they seek after Him.  For they that work iniquity have not walked in His ways.  Thou hast enjoined Thy commandments, that we should keep them most diligently.  Would that my ways were directed to keep Thy statutes.  Then shall I not be ashamed, when I look on all Thy commandments.  I will confess Thee with uprightness of heart, when I have learned the judgments of Thy righteousness.  I will keep thy statutes; do not utterly forsake me.
Blessed are the Blameless (Psalm 118:1-8)
ב
Beth

Wherewithal shall a young man correct his way? By keeping Thy words.  With my whole heart have I sought after Thee, cast me not away from Thy commandments.  In my heart have I hid Thy sayings that I might not sin against Thee.  Blessed art Thou, O Lord, teach me Thy statutes.  With my lips have I declared all the judgments of Thy mouth.  In the way of Thy testimonies have I found delight, as much as in all riches.  On Thy commandments will I ponder, and I will understand Thy ways.  On Thy statutes will I meditate; I will not forget Thy words.
Blessed art Thou, O Lord, Teach Me Thy Statutes (Psalm 118:9-16)
ג
Gimel

Give reward unto Thy servant, quicken me and I will keep Thy words.  O unveil mine eyes, and I shall perceive wondrous things out of Thy law.  I am a sojourner on the earth, hide not from me Thy commandments.  My soul hath longed to desire Thy judgments at all times.  Thou hast rebuked the proud; cursed are they that decline from Thy commandments.  Remove from me reproach and contempt, for after Thy testimonies have I sought.  For princes sat and they spake against me, but Thy servant pondered on Thy statutes.  For Thy testimonies are my meditation, and Thy statutes are my counselors.
Unveil Mine Eyes (Psalm 118:17-24)
ד
Daleth

My soul hath cleaved unto the earth; quicken me according to Thy word.  My ways have I declared, and Thou hast heard me; teach me Thy statutes.  Make me to understand the way of Thy statutes, and I will ponder on Thy wondrous works.  My soul hath slumbered from despondency, strengthen me with Thy words.  Remove from me the way of unrighteousness, and with Thy law have mercy on me.  I have chosen the way of truth, and Thy judgments have I not forgotten.  I have cleaved to Thy testimonies, O Lord; put me not to shame.  The way of Thy commandments have I run, when Thou didst enlarge my heart.
The Doors of Repentance (Psalm 118:25-32)

ה
He

Set before me for a law, O Lord, the way of Thy statutes, and I will seek after it continually.  Give me understanding, and I will search out Thy law, and I will keep it with my whole heart.  Guide me in the path of Thy commandments, for I have desired it.  Incline my heart unto Thy testimonies and not unto covetousness.  Turn away mine eyes that I may not see vanity, quicken Thou me in Thy way.  Establish for Thy servant Thine oracle unto fear of Thee.  Remove my reproach which I have feared, for Thy judgments are good.  Behold, I have longed after Thy commandments; in Thy righteousness quicken me.
The Way of Thy Statutes (Psalm 118:33-40)

ו
Vav

Let Thy mercy come also upon me, O Lord, even Thy salvation according to Thy word.  So shall I give an answer to them that reproach me, for I have hoped in Thy words.  And take not utterly out of my mouth the word of truth, for in Thy judgments have I hoped.  So shall I keep Thy law continually, for ever, and unto the ages of ages.  And I walked in spaciousness, for after Thy commandments have I sought.  And I spake of Thy testimonies before kings, and I was not ashamed.  And I meditated on Thy commandments which I have greatly loved.  And I lifted up my hands to Thy commandments which I have loved, and I pondered on Thy statutes.
 Our Anchor of Hope (Psalm 118:41-48)

ז
Zayin

Remember Thy words to Thy servant, wherein Thou hast made me to hope.  This hath comforted me in my humiliation, for Thine oracle hath quickened me.  The proud have transgressed exceedingly, but from Thy law have I not declined.  I remembered Thy judgments of old, O Lord, and was comforted.  Despondency took hold upon me because of the sinners who forsake Thy law.  Thy statutes were my songs in the place of my sojourning.  I remembered Thy name in the night, O Lord, and I kept Thy law.  This hath happened unto me because I sought after Thy statutes.
Remember  Thy Words to Thy Servant (Psalm 118:49-56)

ח
Heth

Thou art my portion, O Lord; I said that I would keep Thy law.  I entreated Thy countenance with my whole heart: Have mercy on me according to Thy word.  I have thought on Thy ways, and I have turned my feet back to Thy testimonies.  I made ready, and I was not troubled, that I might keep Thy commandments.  The cords of sinners have entangled me, but Thy law have I not forgotten.  At midnight I arose to give thanks unto Thee for the judgments of Thy righteousness.  I am a partaker with all them that fear Thee, and with them that keep Thy commandments.  The earth, O Lord, is full of Thy mercy; teach me Thy statutes.
Overcoming Sin (Psalm 118:57-64)

 ט
Teth

Thou hast dealt graciously with Thy servant, O Lord, according to Thy word.  Goodness and discipline and knowledge teach Thou me, for in Thy commandments have I believed.  Before I was humbled, I transgressed; therefore Thy saying have I kept.  Thou art good, O Lord, and in Thy goodness teach me Thy statutes.  Multiplied against me hath been the unrighteousness of the proud; but as for me, with my whole heart will I search out Thy commandments.  Curdled like milk is their heart; but as for me, in Thy law have I meditated.  It is good for me that Thou hast humbled me, that I might learn Thy statutes.  The law of Thy mouth is better to me than thousands of gold and silver.
God's Work to Guide Us on the Path of Salvation (Psalm 118:65-72)

י
Yod

Thy hands have made me and fashioned me; give me understanding and I will learn Thy commandments.  They that fear Thee shall see me and be glad, for on Thy words have I set my hope.  I have known, O Lord, that Thy judgments are righteousness, and with truth hast Thou humbled me.  Let now Thy mercy be my comfort, according to Thy saying unto Thy servant.  Let Thy compassions come upon me and I shall live, for Thy law is my meditation.  Let the proud be put to shame, for unjustly have they transgressed against me; but as for me, I will ponder on Thy commandments.  Let those that fear Thee return unto me, and those that know Thy testimonies.  Let my heart be blameless in Thy statutes, that I may not be put to shame.
Thy hands have made me and fashioned me (Psalm 118:73-80)

כ
Kaph

My soul fainteth for Thy salvation; on Thy words have I set my hope.  Mine eyes are grown dim with waiting for Thine oracle; they say: When wilt Thou comfort me?  For I am become like a wine-skin in the frost; yet Thy statutes have I not forgotten.  How many are the days of Thy servant? When wilt Thou execute judgment for me on them that persecute me?  Transgressors have told me fables, but they are not like Thy law, O Lord.  All Thy commandments are truth. Without a cause have men persecuted me; do Thou help me.  They well nigh made an end of me on the earth; but as for me, I forsook not Thy commandments.  According to Thy mercy quicken me, and I will keep the testimonies of Thy mouth.
On Thy Words have I Set My Hope (Psalm 118:81-88)

ל
Lamed

For ever, O Lord, Thy word abideth in heaven.  Unto generation and generation is Thy truth; Thou hast laid the foundation of the earth, and it abideth.  By Thine ordinance doth the day abide, for all things are Thy servants.  If Thy law had not been my meditation, then should I have perished in my humiliation.  I will never forget Thy statutes, for in them hast Thou quickened me.  I am Thine, save me; for after Thy statutes have I sought.  Sinners have waited for me to destroy me; but Thy testimonies have I understood.  Of all perfection have I seen the outcome; exceeding spacious is Thy commandment.
Forever, O Lord, Thy Word Abideth in Heaven (Psalm 118:89-96)

מ
Mem

O how I have loved Thy law, O Lord! the whole day long it is my meditation.  Above mine enemies hast Thou made me wise in Thy commandment, for it is mine for ever.  Above all that teach me have I gained understanding, for Thy testimonies are my meditation.  Above mine elders have I received understanding, for after Thy  commandments have I sought.  From every way that is evil have I restrained my feet that I might keep Thy words.  From Thy judgments have I not declined, for Thou hast set a law for me.  How sweet to my palate are Thy sayings! more sweet than honey to my mouth.  From Thy commandments have I gained understanding; therefore have I hated every way of unrighteousness.
Loving God and Hating Sin (Psalm 118:97-104)

נ
Nun

Thy law is a lamp unto my feet and a light unto my paths.  I have sworn and resolved that I will keep the judgments of Thy righteousness.  I was humbled exceedingly; O Lord, quicken me according to Thy word.  The free-will offerings of my mouth be Thou now pleased to receive, O Lord, and teach me Thy judgments.  My soul is in Thy hands continually, and Thy law have I not forgotten.  Sinners have set a snare for me, yet from Thy commandment have I not strayed.  I have inherited Thy testimonies for ever, for they are the rejoicing of my heart.  I have inclined my heart to perform Thy statutes for ever for a recompense.
A Light Unto My Paths (Psalm 118:105-112)

ס
Samech

Transgressors have I hated, but Thy law have I loved.  My helper and my protector art Thou; on Thy words have I set my hope.  Depart from me, ye evil-doers, and I will search out the commandments of my God.  Uphold me according to Thy saying and quicken me, and turn me not away in shame from mine expectation.  Help me, and I shall be saved; and I will meditate on Thy statutes continually.  Thou hast set at nought all that depart from Thy statutes, for unrighteous is their inward thought.  I have reckoned as transgressors all the sinners of the earth, therefore have I loved Thy testimonies.  Nail down my flesh with the fear of Thee, for of Thy judgments am I afraid.
Hitherto Hath the Lord Helped Us (Psalm 118:113-120)

ע
Ayin

I have wrought judgment and righteousness; O give me not up to them that wrong me.  Receive Thy servant unto good, let not the proud falsely accuse me.  Mine eyes have failed with waiting for Thy salvation, and for the word of Thy righteousness.  Deal with Thy servant according to Thy mercy, and teach me Thy statutes.  I am Thy servant; give me understanding, and I shall know Thy testimonies.  It is time for the Lord to act; for they have dispersed Thy law.  Therefore have I loved Thy commandments more than gold and topaz.  Therefore I directed myself according to all Thy commandments; every way that is unrighteous have I hated.

The Eye of the Soul (Psalm 118:121-128)

פ
Pe

Wonderful are Thy testimonies; therefore hath my soul searched them out.  The unfolding of Thy words will give light and understanding unto babes.  I opened my mouth and drew in my breath, for I longed for Thy commandments.   Look upon me and have mercy on me, according to the judgment of them that love Thy name.  My steps do Thou direct according to Thy saying, and let no iniquity have dominion over me.  Deliver me from the false accusation of men, and I will keep Thy commandments.  Make Thy face to shine upon Thy servant, and teach me Thy statutes.  Mine eyes have poured forth streams of waters, because I kept not Thy law.

Wonderful are Thy Testimonies (Psalm 118:129-136)

צ
Tsade

Righteous art Thou, O Lord, and upright are Thy judgments.  Thou hast ordained as Thy testimonies exceeding righteousness and truth.  My zeal for Thee hath made me to pine away, because mine enemies have forgotten Thy words.  Thine oracle is tried with fire to the uttermost, and Thy servant hath loved it.  I am young and accounted as nothing, yet Thy statutes have I not forgotten.  Thy righteousness is an everlasting righteousness, and Thy law is truth.  Tribulations and necessities have found me, Thy commandments are my meditation.  Thy testimonies are righteousness for ever; give me understanding and I shall live.

Blessed are They that Hear the Word of God and Keep it (Psalm 118:137-144)

ק
Qoph

I have cried with my whole heart; hear me, O Lord, and I will seek after Thy statutes.  I have cried unto Thee; save me, and I will keep Thy testimonies.  I arose in the dead of night and I cried; on Thy words have I set my hope.  Mine eyes woke before the morning that I might meditate on Thy sayings.  Hear my voice, O Lord, according to Thy mercy; according to Thy judgment, quicken me.  They have drawn nigh that lawlessly persecute me, but from Thy law are they far removed.  Near art Thou, O Lord, and all Thy ways are truth. From the beginning I have known from Thy testimonies that Thou hast founded them for ever.
Imitating God (Psalm 118:145-152)

ר
Resh

Behold my humiliation and rescue me, for Thy law have I not forgotten.  Judge my cause and redeem me; for Thy word's sake quicken me.  Far from sinners is salvation, for they have not sought after Thy statutes.  Thy compassions are many, O Lord; according to Thy judgment quicken me.  Many are they that persecute me and afflict me; from Thy testimonies have I not declined.  I beheld men acting foolishly and I pined away, because they kept not Thy sayings.  Behold, how I have loved Thy commandments; O Lord, in Thy mercy, quicken me.  The beginning of Thy words is truth, and all the judgments of Thy righteousness endure for ever.
If They Hear Not Moses and the Prophets (Psalm 118:153-160)

ש
Shin

Princes have persecuted me without a cause, and because of Thy words my heart hath been afraid.  I will rejoice in Thy sayings as one that findeth great spoil.  Unrighteousness have I hated and abhorred, but Thy law have I loved.  Seven times a day have I praised Thee for the judgments of Thy righteousness.  Much peace have they that love Thy law, and for them there is no stumbling-block.  I awaited Thy salvation, O Lord, and Thy commandments have I loved.  My soul hath kept Thy testimonies and hath loved them exceedingly.  I have kept Thy commandments and Thy testimonies, for all my ways are before Thee, O Lord.

All My Ways are Ever Before Thee (Psalm 118:161-168)

ת
Tav

Let my supplication draw nigh before Thee, O Lord; according to Thine oracle give me understanding.  Let my petition come before Thee, O Lord; according to Thine oracle deliver me.  My lips shall pour forth a hymn when Thou hast taught me Thy statutes.  My tongue shall speak of Thy sayings, for all Thy commandments are righteousness.  Let Thy hand be for saving me, for I have chosen Thy commandments.  I have longed for Thy salvation, O Lord, and Thy law is my meditation.  My soul shall live and shall praise Thee, and Thy judgments will help me.  I have gone astray like a sheep that is lost; O seek Thy servant, for I have not forgotten Thy commandments. 
The Signs of Life (Psalm 118:169-176)

Note: The translation of Psalm 118 is that of The Psalter According to the Seventy, © Copyright Holy Transfiguration Monastery, Brookline, MA, used by permission. All rights reserved. 

Friday, January 31, 2020

Stump the Priest: Everlasting Destruction


Question: "The text of the King James Version for 2 Thessalonians 1:9 is: "Who shall be punished with everlasting destruction from the presence of the Lord, and from the glory of his power." The Revised Standard Version, on the other hand, reads: "They shall suffer the punishment of eternal destruction and exclusion from the presence of the Lord and from the glory of his might." Every other modern translation has it similarly. There's a big difference between "destruction from the presence of the Lord" and "destruction and exclusion from the presence of the Lord." The KJV version makes it sound like there's no lake of fire, etc, but instead Hell is a place where people suffer since they can't bear the presence of God. Growing up I always heard of Hell as "eternal separation from God." Has every modern translation added "and exclusion" to the verse? Is it there in the Greek?"

If you look at the Greek text, you will see that there is no word that means "exclusion":
"οιτινες  [who] δικην [a penalty] τισουσιν [will pay] ολεθρον [destruction] αιωνιον [eternal] απο [from] προσωπου [the face] του [of the] κυριου [Lord]  και [and] απο [from] της [the] δοξης [glory] της ισχυος [of might] αυτου [His]."
So the King James Version is, as is usually the case, a very literal translation of the Greek:
"Who shall be punished with everlasting destruction from the presence of the Lord, and from the glory of his power."
The use of "exclusion" in the RSV is an interpretation of what it means to be punished with everlasting destruction "from the presence of the Lord".

The English Standard Version reads: "They will suffer the punishment of eternal destruction, away from[a] the presence of the Lord and from the glory of his might." But it adds a footnote with an alternative translation: "Or destruction that comes from." And so their alternative reading of the text would agree with what you suggest. The problem with the RSV's translation is it makes the passage seem clearer than it actually is, and quite likely, the interpretation of the RSV is incorrect.

St. John Chrysostom commentary on this passage suggests the interpretation that the destruction is brought about by the presence of Christ at His coming:
"There are many men, who form good hopes not by abstaining from their sins, but by thinking that hell is not so terrible as it is said to be, but milder than what is threatened, and temporary, not eternal; and about this they philosophize much. But I could show from many reasons, and conclude from the very expressions concerning hell, that it is not only not milder, but much more terrible than is threatened. But I do not now intend to discourse concerning these things. For the fear even from bare words is sufficient, though we do not fully unfold their meaning. But that it is not temporary, hear Paul now saying, concerning those who know not God, and who do not believe in the Gospel, that “they shall suffer punishment, even eternal destruction.” How then is that temporary which is everlasting? “From the face of the Lord,” he says. What is this? He here wishes to say how easily it might be. For since they were then much puffed up, there is no need, he says, of much trouble; it is enough that God comes and is seen, and all are involved in punishment and vengeance. His coming only to some indeed will be Light, but to others vengeance."
Furthermore, in the next chapter, St. Paul says something similar about the effect of Christ's coming on the Antichrist:
"And then shall that Wicked be revealed, whom the Lord shall consume with the spirit of his mouth, and shall destroy with the brightness of his coming" (2 Thessalonians 2:8).
And, St. John Comments on that passage as follows:
"And such is the nature of good things; they not only correct what is akin to them, but also destroy the opposite: and in this way is their power most displayed. For so both fire, not only when it giveth light and when it purifieth gold, but even when it consumeth thorns, doth very greatly display its proper power, and so show itself to be fire: and Christ too herein also doth discover His own majesty when He “shall consume” Antichrist “with the breath of His mouth, and bring him to nought with the manifestation of His coming” [Homilies on Second Corinthians 5.2].
I would not take this text to imply that there is no lake of fire. The teachings of Scripture and Tradition when it comes to the final judgment are more complicated than that, and they have to be taken together, as a whole. If you were only going to read one book (apart from Scripture) on this subject, my recommendation would be "Life after Death," by Met. Hierotheos (Vlachos).

It should also be pointed out that the meaning of "destruction" in this passage does not suggest annihilation, but rather ruin and perdition.


Thursday, January 23, 2020

Review: Two Contemporary Translations of the Septuagint


The New English Translation of the Septuagint (NETS) is a “scholarly” translation that I think is worth having on hand for reference, but the translation is seriously flawed—both in terms of style and substance. Stylistically, the use of mostly unfamiliar transliterations for the names of people and places from the Greek make this text very awkward and practically unusable by the average layman. For example, you will search in vain in a Bible dictionary for Heua, Kain, Habel, Saoul, Dauid, or Nabouchodonosor—while the names of Eve, Cain, Abel, Saul, David, and even Nebuchadnezzar are generally familiar. The argument that using the standard forms of these names would be less than a faithful translation of the Greek is belied by the fact that translations of the New Testament are also from Greek, and yet we do not generally find the names “Iesous Christos,” “Petros,” “Paulos,” or “Iakovos,” but we do generally see the standard forms of the names found in the King James Version which have been the standard in English for four centuries. We will compare it more substantively, below. The binding is not bad, but the font is too small (about 8.5), the printing is not as dark as it should be, and the text goes into the gutter of the book, such that you sometimes have to hold it open with both hands to read the text that is connected to the gutter. The NETS used the New Revised Standard Version as its starting point, which is why it often reflects a gender neutral approach to the text.

The newer translation of the Septuagint -- which I find far more readable than the NETS -- is the Lexham English Septuagint (LES). The binding is a bit better, the font is a bit larger, and darker -- and a lot easier on the eyes. It uses the standard English forms of the names of people and places. I could never bring myself to sit down and read through the NETS, because of its odd choices in translation, and particularly because of their use of odd transliterations of nouns -- but I have been reading through the LES, and while it is not a beautiful translation, it not painful to read. It has section headings, and the names of the books generally conform to standard English usage, though when it comes to  the names of the books commonly known as 1st and 2nd Samuel and 1st and 2nd Kings, they call them 1st, 2nd, 3rd, and 4th "Kingdoms" (probably following the lead of the Orthodox Study Bible). I do not quibble with them not using the names "1st Samuel" and "2nd Samuel," since this is based on the Masoretic text rather than the Septuagint; however, they should have used the more standard English form “Kings,” rather the "Kingdoms." The NETS uses “Reigns,” which is more a more precise translation of the Greek name, but “Kings” is what we have used in English for as long as we have had English translations. And certainly, these books do not recount a continuous chain of distinct kingdoms, but rather of the reigns of various kings.

Rather than taking an existing translation of the Hebrew Old Testament text, and correcting it with the Septuagint, the LES is a fresh translation, unlike either the NETS or the Orthodox Study Bible (which used the New King James Version as its starting point). There are pluses and minus to either approach. In my opinion, since the Septuagint is a translation of the Hebrew texts that existed at the time, and so when the Masoretic Hebrew text is clearly the same as the text being translated by the Septuagint, it seems perfectly reasonable to keep an eye on both texts. On the other hand, at least in the case of the Orthodox Study Bible, this caused them to miss some real differences between the Masoretic text and the Septuagint.

The LES has some texts that are not in the NETS. It contains the book of Enoch, as well as an alternate texts of Tobit (taken from Sinaiticus), and Daniel (including Susanna and Bel and the Dragon) from Theodotion’s Greek text.

The short-comings of the LES compared to the NETS is primarily in the area of footnotes. If there is a significant textual issue, the NETS is likely to mention it in their footnotes. The LES footnotes are much further and farther between. So you definitely get more scholarly information from the NETS, but the text is unreadable, in my opinion.

Here are some specific comparisons:

Genesis 1:1-2

NETS: “In the beginning God made the heaven and the earth. Yet the earth was invisible and unformed, and darkness was over the abyss, and a divine wind was being carried along over the water.”

LES: "In the beginning, God made the heavens and the earth. But the earth was unseen and unprepared, and darkness was upon the deep. And the spirit of God rushed upon the water."

While the NETS translation is a possible translation of the Greek text, one has to ignore 2000 years of Christian interpretation of this passage to see this as merely a divine wind, rather than the Holy Spirit at work.

Genesis 3:15

NETS: "And I will put enmity between you and between the woman and between your offspring and between her offspring; he will watch your head, and you will watch his heel."

LES: “I will place enmity between you and the woman, and between your seed and her seed; he will watch your head carefully, and you will watch his heel carefully.”

Here, the fact that the NETS used the NRSV as its starting point results in a translation that seriously distorts the meaning of the text. "...the seed of the woman" becomes simply "the offspring" despite the fact that the Greek reads spermastos, and one does not have to be a Greek scholar to understand that this does not simply mean "offspring."

Genesis 6:2 

NETS: "Now when the sons of of God saw the daughters of humans, that they were fair, they took wives for themselves of all that they chose."

LES: “the angels of God, having seen the daughters of humans, that they were beautiful, took for themselves women from all whom they picked out.”

Here both translations use the gender "neutral" humans, rather than "men," but this is one example of the LES poorly translating the text. There actually is a Septuagint manuscript that reads "angels of God" rather than "sons of God," but this is not how most read, nor is it how the Hebrew text reads. It is true that normally "sons of God" is used in reference to angels, but this is not always the case. In this case, most of the Fathers are adamant that "the sons of God" here actually refers to the godly line of Seth, which began to intermarry with the sinful line of Cain (the daughters of men). In any case, a translation should not make the leap towards interpretation, but should convey as literally as reasonably possible, what the original text actually says, so that the reader doesn't assume that the text is unambiguous, when there actually are ambiguities that need to be considered.

Psalm 8:5-6

NETS “What is man that you are mindful of him or the son of man that you attend to him? You diminished him a little in comparison with angels; with glory and honor you crowned him.”

LES: “What is man that you remember him? Or a son of a man that you observe him? You made him somewhat less than angels; you crowned him with glory and honor.”

Stylistically, I think the LES is slightly better, but neither are beautifully translated. However, they both convey the meaning of the text well enough.

Isaiah 1:1

NETS: “A vision, which Esaias son of Amos saw – which he saw against Judea and against Ierousalem in the reign of Ozias and Ioatham and Achaz and Hezekias, who reigned over Judea.”

LES: “The vision that Isaiah the son of Amoz saw, which he saw against Judea and against Jerusalem during the reign of Uzziah and Jotham and Ahaz and Hezekiah who ruled Judea.”

This is an example of where the weird decisions for translating nouns in the NETS really grates on me. What sense does it make to use "Ierousalem" and not to use "Ioudaia." And few will immediately connect the names of "Ozias" and "Ioatham" with Uzziah and Jotham.

I would not recommend either text for liturgical use, but for personal Bible study, both are worth having for reference; however, I would recommend you actually read the LES, if you want a contemporary English translation of the Septuagint, that is relatively well done.

Update:

Here are two video reviews of these two texts that bring out some points that I didn't notice:



For More Information:

An Orthodox Look at English Translations of the Bible

Beauty and the Bible

King James English and Orthodox Worship

Thursday, January 16, 2020

An Anonymous "Open Letter" against Fr. Josiah Trenham


When Metropolitan Anthony (Khrapovitsky) received a letter, the first thing he would do is look for a signature. If he saw that the letter was unsigned, he would throw the letter away without reading it, because if someone was unwilling to sign a letter, it was not worth reading. Unfortunately, in this case, the unsigned letter is also an "open letter," splashed across the internet. Given that many will read this letter, I feel the need to respond to it, because a great priest is being slandered, but the fact is that Metropolitan Anthony was quite right, and no one really should give such a letter any credence.

If someone is standing for the Truth, and they believe something needs to be said in public, they should have the courage both to say it, and to own it. The martyrs of the Church laid down their lives for the truth of the Faith; the least that we can do have the courage to speak up in an honest and forthright manner, and to do so like men.

What is interesting about this letter, is that there is very little that is actually cited in terms of things that Fr. Josiah has taught, which are alleged to be in error. Mostly, the author attributes malicious intentions that he believes lie behind what Fr. Josiah has said and done, and suggests that perhaps Fr. Josiah holds views that he fails to actually provide evidence for.
"I’ll get straight to the point of this article—on issues related to homosexuality,  politics, and the Church, Father Josiah Trenham of the Antiochian Orthodox Christian Archdiocese (AOCA) has done incalculable damage. As I will highlight in this article, not only has this damage led to numerous people leaving the Orthodox Church, but it also seems to have spurred a discussion going in the opposite direction of his approach, with arguments being made to accept same-sex marriage as a norm."
It is difficult to imagine that the anonymous author really believes that if Fr. Josiah had kept quiet about homosexuality in the last ten years, that there would now be no voices pressing for the Church to accept it.
"Most importantly, this uncharitable approach has deeply wounded many of our faithful who struggle against same-sex attraction and try to lead a godly life. If we Orthodox are to care for all people who come to us in a way that allows us to stay true to our Holy Tradition, our hierarchy must ensure that priests like Father Josiah are tempered in the same manner as others who have spoken out on opposite sides of the spectrum."
Does the anonymous author agree with St. Paul that those who are homosexuals will not inherit the Kingdom of God (1 Corinthians 6:9-11)? If so, how is it more charitable to not tell homosexuals that this is the case, so as not to offend them, and let them die without repentance and fail to inherit the Kingdom of God?
"My purpose in writing this article is to bring attention to Father Josiah’s words and actions because I am quite certain that my brother clergy and the vast majority of the faithful are unaware of these things. Certainly, had they been aware, there would have been an effort to speak with him privately to remove his material from the internet and to cease speaking and teaching in the manner outlined below. Related to that, I wish to state at the outset that I do know Father Josiah personally, and we have spoken about our disagreements. (Unfortunately, with the current climate on this topic in the Antiochian Archdiocese, I feel forced to publish this article anonymously).) I have even worked with him towards common goals on issues where we are like-minded. I am not calling for Father Josiah to be “punished;” I simply want his teachings that are contrary to the Orthodox faith and witness to be corrected and for those materials to be removed from the public sphere."
When St. Paul said his final farewell to the leaders of the Church of Ephesus, with whom he had invested so much, he said:
"Wherefore I call you to witness this day, that I am innocent of the blood of all men. For I did not shrink from declaring unto you the whole counsel of God" (Acts 20:26-27).
St. John Chrysostom comments on these verses as follows:
"So that he may well say, "Wherefore I take you to record -- seeing I shall be with you no more -- “that I am pure from the blood of all men.” (v. 26.) Do you mark how he terrifies them, and troubled and afflicted as their souls are, how hard he rubs them (ἐπιτρίβει)? But it was necessary. “For I have not shunned,” he says, “to declare unto you all the counsel of God.” (v. 27.) Why then, he who does not speak, has blood to answer for: that is, murder! Nothing could be more terrifying than this. He shows that they also, if they do it not, have blood to answer for. So, whereas he seems to be justifying himself, in fact he is terrifying them. “Take heed therefore unto yourselves, and to all the flock, over the which the Holy Spirit hath made you overseers to feed the Church of God, which He hath purchased with His own blood.” (v. 28.) Do you mark? he enjoins them two things. Neither success in bringing others right of itself is any gain -- for, I fear, he says, “lest by any means, when I have preached to others, I myself should be a cast-away” (1 Cor. 9:27); nor the being diligent for one’s self alone. For such an one is selfish, and seeks his own good only, and is like to him who buried his talent. “Take heed to yourselves:” this he says, not because our own salvation is more precious than that of the flock, but because, when we take heed to ourselves, then the flock also is a gainer. “In which the Holy Spirit hath made you overseers, to feed the Church of God.” See, it is from the Spirit ye have your ordination. This is one constraint: then he says, “To feed the Church of the Lord.” Lo! another obligation: the Church is the Lord’s. And a third: “which He hath purchased with His own blood.” It shows how precious the concern is; that the peril is about no small matters, seeing that even His own blood He spared not. He indeed, that he might reconcile those who were enemies, poured out even His blood: but thou, even when they are become thy friends, art not able to retain them" (Homily 44 on Acts).
There are a number of important implications from this passage. First of all, it is clear that to fail to declare the whole counsel of God would make a clergyman guilty of the spiritual deaths of those they fail to fully instruct. Secondly, St. Paul is saying that he did not allow fear to prevent him from declaring the whole counsel of God. How would fear have prevented him? One might infer that this was in reference to the external threats he faced, but it likely also is in reference to the fear one might have within the Church, of telling people things that they don't want to hear. Often when that happens, unpleasantries ensue, and if one just wishes to avoid conflict, it is far easier not to say such things. But Christian clergy are called to not take the easy, gutless way.

Then the anonymous author calls on people to harass Metropolitan Joseph, in hopes of forcing them to silence Fr. Josiah on the issue of homosexuality, and the LGBTQP+ agenda. So while the author is unwilling to sign his own name to his letter, he is hoping to inspire a social media mob against Fr. Josiah.
"I also want to state at the outset that this essay is not an endorsement of the controversial and recently retracted article by Father Aaron Warwick of the Antiochian Archdiocese [Pastoring LGBTQ Individuals in the Orthodox Church and Public Statement]. I have several substantial disagreements with that article, but elucidating those is not my point in writing here. My point is to call attention to the fact that there is a reason priests and laypeople are reacting to Father Josiah Trenham: he has been implicitly endorsed by our church hierarchy who allow him to keep his un-Orthodox and uncharitable material available online—even promoting some of it for sale. My hope in writing this article is very simple. I do not wish to “tar and feather” Father Josiah: I simply hope that our clergy and laity will encourage our hierarchs to privately instruct Father Josiah about the damage he is causing and will have him retract and take down his deeply offensive and un-Orthodox material."
On the one hand, the anonymous author doesn't want to have to defend Fr. Aaron Warwick's words, or actually come clean on his own positions, but he labels Fr. Josiah's work as "un-Orthodox." However, as we will see, he never identifies a specific teaching of Fr. Josiah's that he both demonstrates Fr. Josiah actually holds, and which is in fact "un-Orthodox."
"I should note that I personally know a number of people who have left the Church not only due to Father Josiah’s behavior, but, even more specifically, because of the Church’s silence and inaction, which they believe implicitly condones this behavior. I wish I could wholeheartedly disagree with them. I still want to believe that the hierarchy simply don’t know the extent of what he is doing or saying, or perhaps they just don’t understand the cultural impact of his actions. But it is becoming increasingly difficult for me to do so."
The fact that people leave because they don't like what they hear is actually not a real argument regarding the question of whether they needed to hear what offended them or not. In the Gospels, we are told that quite a few people were offended by what Christ taught, and said "This is a hard saying; who can accept it?" (John 6:60). And then we are told that "From that time many of his disciples went back, and walked no more with him" (John 6:66). What was Christ's reaction? Did he call a Church Growth Consultant to find out where He had gone wrong? No. He turned to the disciples that hadn't left yet, and said "Do you also want to go away?" (John 6:67).

As a matter of fact, however, if you look at every denomination that has embraced the LGBTQP+ agenda, they have been on downward spirals. When I made this point in my response to Fr. Aaron Warwick, the editor of "Orthodoxy in Dialogue" quipped:
"Father Whiteford gloats that all the liberal Protestant churches have emptied out. By this metric, such a righteous, right-teaching priest as himself must have grown his parish to a European-sized cathedral by now. We eagerly await a full report, complete with photos."
In response to this, I would note that the fact that these denominations are emptying out is no guarantee that the Orthodox Church will be the ones who pick those people up. But given that 20 years ago my parish was holding services in a room that is now my study, and we had about 20 people, if they all showed up at the same time; and that now we are typically running around 100 people on Sundays, we have a purpose built Temple (although one getting too small for us), and that our property is current debt free, we are not doing badly, and certainly are not shrinking. But Fr. Josiah Trenham actually has a parish that has a lot more people than most European cathedrals have these days, so obviously Fr. Josiah is not chasing people away from the Church. I would also note that Islam is growing very quickly in the west, and obviously, they haven't changed their views on  the LGBTQP+ agenda to make that growth possible.
"I will outline below, in chronological order, four egregious instances (there are many more) in which Father Josiah’s behavior and words related to same-sex issues have done significant damage to the spiritual well-being of many of our parishioners, as well as irreparable harm to the Orthodox Church’s reputation as a loving hospital for sick souls. Because of his actions, he is now listed as a religious figure promoting hate by both the Southern Poverty Law Center and People for the American Way."
The Southern Poverty Law Center is a leftist organization that has lost all credibility. For example, they labelled the Family Research Council as a hate group, because they take a Biblical stand on homosexuality and gay marriage, which inspired a homosexual terrorist to attempt to murder its staff members. They have also been successfully sued for defamation, and been forced to pay 3.4 million dollars in a single defamation case. They have shady finances, and their founder was forced to step down when he was accused of sexually harassing staff members, as well as being guilty of gender discrimination and racism (of all things). And People for the American Way is likewise a leftist organization, with a very long history of hating anything Christian in the public square.
"Whatever one’s opinion of either of these groups may be, it is important to note that they do not label churches or individuals as hate groups simply for being morally opposed to homosexuality. Rather, they identify figures who, through their words or actions, harmfully disparage and contribute to the persecution of marginalized groups. Sadly, I must agree with them that Father Josiah’s words and actions, both of commission and omission, have clearly crossed these lines. And in each of the following four cases, he has harmed the faith of many Orthodox Christians, a number of whom have left the Church."
What exactly did the Family Research Council or Focus on the Family do that warranted these groups hating on them?
"Father Josiah posted to his parish’s website an announcement that they would begin praying the paraklesis on a regular basis in order to “stem the rising tide of sodomy in our state.” The subtext for this announcement was California’s ballot proposition to amend the state constitution in order to prohibit state recognition of same-sex marriage. (Note: The parish website has been significantly reworked since then and this page can no longer be found.) At the time, I was pastoring ten college students who had recently converted to the Orthodox faith, several of whom even were planning to vote in favor of this prohibition of same-sex marriage (i.e. they were opposed to same-sex marriage being legalized). Nevertheless, Father Josiah’s announcement scandalized all of them for two main reasons. The first was his use of the heavily charged term “sodomy.”"
"Sodomy" and "sodomite" are perfectly good English words, which are often used in well known and highly used translations of the Bible, including the text found in the Orthodox Study Bible (e.g. 1 Corinthians 6:9-11). In our time, the term "homosexuality" is often defined, not in terms of the sin of falling into homosexual passions, but as the inclination itself, and so to be clear about what we are referring to, "sodomy" is a useful term which keeps the focus on the sin, rather than on a person who might be tempted to commit it.
"The second reason the students were scandalized, however, struck me even more deeply. They wanted to know why, out of all the social ills going on in the world, from famine to homelessness to wars that our own hierarchs correctly and bravely oppose as unjust, Father Josiah was singling out the LGBTQ community as a menace worthy of special prayer services. One of these young people, who knew the Bible and church history like the back of his hand, wanted to know why Father Josiah was using a politically-charged term like sodomy, and not focusing on what the Bible indicates was the sin of Sodom: “Behold, this was the guilt of your sister Sodom: she and her daughters had pride, surfeit of food, and prosperous ease, but did not aid the poor and needy” (Ez 16:49). As this student correctly noted, this is the underlying sin of America."
I don't believe anyone who actually listens to Fr. Josiah's sermons could honestly say that he does not talk about things like feeding the poor and helping the homeless. Those matters are obviously not subject to the same kind of controversy either. But our society's surrender to the LGBTQP+ agenda has already had a lot of real world consequences that hit very close to home for us all. We now have LGBTQP+ propaganda regularly taught to children in public schools. We have Christian adoption agencies that have been forced to close because they refuse to adopt children to homosexuals. We have seen Christians who oppose that agenda forced out of business, and fired from their jobs. We have seen groups as benign and respectable as the Salvation Army labeled as a hate group simply because they hold to Biblical teachings on homosexuality. And we have by no means seen the last of where this shift will ultimately take us as a society. We won't know that for sure for many decades. So Fr. Josiah's concerns are absolutely justified. And it should be noted that the proposition against gay marriage that he supported passed by a healthy margin, even in the far left state of California, and gay marriage was only imposed upon that state by activists judges abusing their power.

As for the idea that the sin of Sodom was merely that they were not nice to visitors --  that is absolute nonsense. Not only is this clear from the passage in Genesis itself (Genesis 19), but it is even made clear in the very context of the passage our anonymous author is referencing. Ezekiel 16:49 does indeed say:
"Behold, this was the iniquity of thy sister Sodom, pride, fullness of bread, and abundance of idleness was in her and in her daughters, neither did she strengthen the hand of the poor and needy."
But that's not all Ezekiel said. In the very next verse, we read:
"And they were haughty, and committed abomination before me: therefore I took them away as I saw good" (Ezekiel 16:50).
The word "abomination" in Hebrew is "tô‛êbah," which was discussed in some detail in a previous article (Stump the Priest: Shrimp and Homosexuality). In every other case in the book of Ezekiel in which the singular of tô‛êbah is used, it is in reference to sexual immorality (Ezekiel 22:11; 33:26). Clearly, the abomination that is referred to here is that of sexual immorality in general, and homosexuality in particular. This is how the famous medieval Jewish commentator Rashi understood that text as well (see Robert Gagnon, Why We Know That the Story of Sodom Indicts Homosexual Practice Per Se). Likewise, the Jewish philosopher Philo, who was a contemporary of Christ, understood the sin of Sodom to be homosexuality (Abraham 133-141).

Furthermore, the Epistle of St. Jude makes it clear that the sins of Sodom included sexual immorality chiefly among them:
"...as Sodom and Gomorrah, and the cities around them in a similar manner to these, having given themselves over to sexual immorality and gone after strange flesh, are set forth as an example, suffering the vengeance of eternal fire" (Jude 7).
Commenting on this passage Oecumenius says:
"The unnatural lust in which the Sodomites indulged was homosexuality..." (Commentary on Jude, quoted in Ancient Christian Commentary on Scripture: New Testament, Vol. XI, Gerald Bray, ed. (Downers Grove, IL: Intervasity Press, 2000) p. 251).
St. John Chrysostom likewise connects the sin of homosexuality with the condemnation of Sodom in his homily on Romans 1:26-27.

The sin of Sodom was not that they were rude to strangers. They were sexually perverse, and this led them to the attempted rape of the two angels that visited Lot in Sodom. This sexual perversity is not merely incidental to this story. Dr. Robert Gagnon spells out the reasons for this in great detail in the following video:


"I assured this young man that Father Josiah’s views were not representative of the Orthodox Church as a whole. But gradually, over the next decade, because no one challenged Father Josiah’s attack on the LGBTQ community, because no one redirected him to Ezekiel’s and Jesus’ attacks on those who fail to care for the poor and needy, over half of these young people no longer attend Orthodox churches, despite the fact that they are still fully committed to living out the Gospel teaching."
Perhaps if our anonymous author had actually declared the whole counsel of God to these young people, the results world have been different. The fact that he clearly agreed with them, contrary to the Tradition of the Church and the Scriptures themselves, that the sin of Sodom had nothing to do with sexual perversion shows that he not only failed to teach them the Truth, but actually confirmed them in their error.
"On June 26, 2015, the United States Supreme Court ruled in favor of same-sex marriage in Obergefell v. Hodges. Faithful Orthodox Christians have been understandably divided on their reactions to this ruling, and I have my own mixed feelings. What is undeniably clear, however, is that Father Josiah’s ensuing behavior the following Sunday was deeply offensive and in flagrant violation of church traditions. At the Sunday Divine Liturgy of June 28, 2015, Fr. Josiah vested in black vestments and preached a sermon entirely focused on the Supreme Court and its ruling, with no reference to the appointed Gospel for that Sunday. (Ironically, he could have easily preached on the appointed Gospel, Mt 8:5-13, and indicated that Christ could heal people struggling with their sexuality just as he healed the centurion’s servant.)"
Had Fr. Josiah been on the Old Calendar, he could have preached from the Prophecy of Amos, since that Sunday was his feast -- which is what I did, but I applied what the Prophet Amos had to say to the results of that same Supreme Court decision (God's Plumbline). I doubt that Fr. Josiah and I were alone on that Sunday in feeling the need to address this issue. There are times during the life of St. John Chrysostom, for example, in which his preaching departed from the lectionary readings, and he felt the need to speak about a burning issue that needed his attention.
"I was, of course, serving at my own parish that Sunday morning and not in attendance at Father Josiah’s parish; but there was a text message on my phone that afternoon from someone who was there and was concerned. I was somewhat in disbelief and assured the parishioner that Father Josiah had simply overreacted and this issue would “blow over.” But then, two days later, Father Josiah proudly published the transcript and audio of his sermon (with description of his actions) on Ancient Faith Radio (listen here). It should be noted that, according to its website, “Ancient Faith Ministries is a department of the Antiochian Orthodox Christian Archdiocese of North America with a pan-Orthodox outreach.” Since this material was posted on a website that is a department of the AOCA, I thought for certain that these actions and comments would be chastised. I felt confident that the transcript would, at the very least, be removed, and, hopefully, an apology issued. And yet, more than four years later they remain in a public location, and one that is often a first stop for inquirers, catechumens, and the faithful. Sadly, I have received many more concerned questions about these remarks and actions since they were published, meaning people are still viewing this uncharitable material."
You will note that there is actually nothing in Fr. Josiah's sermon (A Black Day: Supreme Folly from the Supremes) that the anonymous author has actually pointed out as being false, or in need of retraction.
"It should be pointed out that black vestments are used so rarely in services that many priests/parishes do not even own any. They are for use only in the first week of Lent and Holy Week, and often are reserved solely for Great and Holy Friday. Yet Father Josiah wore them (and instructed all of his concelebrants to wear them) at a Sunday celebration of the resurrection of Christ! To replace festive gold with the black of mourning on a day celebrating the resurrection is inexcusable and disrespectful to the symbolism and tradition of our Church. Father Josiah further explained that what had happened that day in America was worse than if a parishioner had died: “You’re wondering, probably, who died, and I haven’t told you yet. Much, much worse than that, brothers and sisters. I wish that, instead of the cause for wearing black vestments today, I had only the sorrow to tell you that one of our beloved passed away….” Father Josiah has never worn black vestments when American bombs have rained down killing innocent children (many of them Orthodox) in the Middle East—in wars that our hierarchs have vocally and correctly opposed as unjust. Father Josiah has never worn black vestments to mourn the homeless crisis in California that a UN inspector has deemed one of the worst situations in the world. Instead, a Supreme Court ruling that did not directly affect the life of the Church warranted this action in his eyes."
So now we are concerned about liturgical color schemes. As a matter of fact, no one used black vestments in the Orthodox Church prior to the funeral of the Emperor Peter II in 1821. It became the Russian practice to use them on most of the weekdays of Great Lent and Holy Week. It is certainly out of the normal order to wear black vestments on a Sunday, but if you read the Prophets in the Old Testament, they more than a few times did unusual things to get people's attention.

Unfortunately, the United States has been at war on some level or another for most of its history -- and so if we wore black every time our military did something that resulted in the deaths of innocent civilians, we would be wearing black more often than not. And, at least in most cases, there is no reason to think that we are currently targeting innocent civilians on purpose. But I also know that there is a special sensitivity to the political issues in the Middle East within the Antiochian Archdiocese, and I know that at least some clergy have been told not to make statements on their own, because of the negative impact that those statements (coming from clergy that the Antiochian Patriarchate is responsible for) might have on the Christian population in the Middle East who live in very precarious political situations. Not being part of the Antiochian Archdiocese, I have written and spoken on the immoral policies of the United States in the Middle East. Fr. Josiah probably does not have as much liberty on that issue, and I can understand the concern about blow-back that the Antiochian bishops have.
"If he did these things without the blessing of his bishop, there should have been a sharp reprimand and his sermon should have been removed from Ancient Faith Radio—and it still should be removed now. If he did these things with the blessing of his bishop, then we have an even bigger problem, and the Antiochian hierarchs themselves need to be called out for their hypocrisy and the pastoral harm they are actively countenancing. It is well past time for this rebuke to come, an apology to be issued, and for this sermon to be taken off of a prominent Orthodox website. It continues to do damage to our faithful, as well as to our reputation as a place of love and healing."
Keep in mind in reading these words that the only thing specifically that Fr. Josiah did that the anonymous author thinks should warrant him being disciplined and being forced to issue an apology is to wear the wrong color vestments at a Liturgy.
"Because Father Josiah’s behavior was not disciplined, he went on to catch the attention of the Southern Poverty Law Center (SPLC) for his disturbing remarks at the World Congress of Families in the nation of Georgia. The SPLC characterized the gathering as a whole a showcase of “anti-LGBT rhetoric and conspiracy theories,” but described Father Josiah’s address as “one of the more virulently anti-LGBT speeches” at the four-day event."
And if Fr. Josiah sued the SPLC for defamation, he might have won 3.4 million dollars too.
"Some lowlights include Father Josiah’s declaration that “today the USA has a national ambassador for the promotion of sodomy,” and his dire warning that the “lavender mafia, these homofascists, these rainbow radicals” will turn Tbilisi into a city like San Francisco, “where there are 80,000 more dogs in the city limits than there are children.” Most horrific of all, Father Josiah—who ordinarily has nothing but mockery and scorn for Muslims, Muhammad, and their sacred texts—referred to the Qur’an with implicit approval, stating, “Muhammad is recorded as ordering the execution of anyone practicing sodomy.” Several in the crowd actually applauded this comment—applause that Father Josiah did not reprimand during the speech, and applause that he danced around when interviewed about the topic, as I will show below."
Rather than focus on the characterizations of Fr. Josiah's speech on the part of those who hate the teachings of the Church, I would recommend that everyone listen to the actual speech in its entirety and judge for themselves whether he said anything untrue or contrary to the teachings of the Church. I would argue that the only people who will object to this speech are those who would object to any speech that insisted that homosexuality really is a sin, and that it is incompatible with the Christian life.



It happens to be a fact that the United States has used its power and influence to promote the LGBTQP+ agenda around the world. Our embassies regularly fly the rainbow flag, our ambassadors regularly march in "gay pride" parades, and we threaten any country with sanctions if they do not play along -- with the curious exceptions of countries like Saudi Arabia, who put homosexuals to death according to Sharia Law.

What Fr. Josiah said about the Quran happens to be true. No one who is trying to be fair here would seriously argue that Fr. Josiah supports putting homosexuals to death.
"The use of such extreme, conspiratorial, and apocalyptic language—in a nation like Georgia, where violence against LGBT individuals remains quite high—is at the very least wildly irresponsible. Groups like the SPLC and People for the American Way are understandably concerned that it can incite violence. Journalist Natalia Antelava gave Father Josiah the opportunity to clarify his position and asked him specifically if he had considered that it could incite violence in Georgia. While he claimed he did not approve of the death penalty for homosexuals, he gave literally no answer for why he did not rebuke the crowd for their applause, only noting that he disagreed with it and so just continued his speech without much pause. You can hear this interview for yourself here: the segment on Father Josiah begins at the 36:45 mark. The applause can be heard at 38:05. There is also a transcript of the interview towards the bottom of the linked webpage."
You will note that if you listen to this speech on YouTube, the applause is not even audible. Furthermore, I doubt he expected that there would be any applause, and so his reaction of just continuing to speak is understandable. When something unexpected happens when you are speaking it's easy to later think of what you might have said or done in response, but it is a lot harder to come up with something in the few seconds you have to process it.
"With complete disregard to widely available statistics and well documented news reports, Father Josiah told Antelava (in the recorded conversation linked above) that he does not believe violence against homosexuals is of any significant concern. He even went so far as to suggest—with no evidence whatsoever—that it is the LGBT community who is a violent threat to religious conservatives!"
Interestingly, I was looking at an old post of mine, which had links to two YouTube videos of LGBT mob violence targeting Christians, and I see that YouTube has removed them both, which underscores the fact that the media skews reporting on this issue. I did a Google search to see if I could find links to articles about the incidents shown in those videos, and Google's algorithms being what they are, nothing turned up. That certainly doesn't mean that it hasn't happened. "Act Up" use to disrupt Roman Catholic Masses on a somewhat regular basis. As I mentioned before, the Southern Poverty Law Center's labeling of the Family Research Council as a hate group inspired a homosexual activist to attempt to kill the staff at its headquarters. And at least in the current climate today, here in the US, where Fr. Josiah lives, it is far more likely that any organized violence is going to be directed by pro-LGBTQP+ activists against those they see as "the haters" than the other way around. Obviously any violence directed at anyone should not be encouraged, but rather condemned. Nowhere has Fr. Josiah ever suggested that violence against homosexuals was a Christian response. His point was simply that the religions that have adherents among the majority of the worlds population all agree with St. Paul that homosexual sex is contrary to nature and a grave sin -- Christianity, Judaism, Islam, and Buddhism.

Furthermore, we have already had intellectuals on the left making the case that conservative Christians should be treated like Nazis, and not allowed to participate in polite society. So there is no reason to think that the current level of hostility that they show towards those who do not approve of their views is as far as things will go. If they have the power to do it, things may get a whole lot worse for those unwilling to bow the knee to Baal.
"If there were any hopes that Father Josiah may have been privately reprimanded after his remarks in Georgia, they were dashed by his speech at the Parish Life Conference in Portland, and his subsequent audio series on his website Patristic Nectar Publishing, entitled “Patriotism: The Duty of a Christian to His Nation.” This five-part series is riddled with conservative Presbyterian theological concepts that have dubious place in Orthodoxy. It is worth noting here that Father Josiah has degrees from two Protestant institutions, the evangelical Westmont College and the Presbyterian Westminster Seminary, but no academic degrees from any Orthodox institution."
Of course, since our anonymous author has failed to put his name behind his words, we have no way of measuring his credentials against Fr. Josiah's, but if you want to accuse him of saying something that is contrary to the Tradition of the Church, you would normally need to actually cite something specific which he has said, which this anonymous hit-piece has been very short on even attempting to do.

I would simply note that if you read what the Fathers and Saints of the Church have to say about the commandment to "Honor thy father and thy mother," you will find that they teach that this extends to honoring one's country. As citizens of a country, we do have obligations to that country.
"There is no room here to tackle the numerous problems throughout this series, but a few quick observations are important. First, Father Josiah adopts a stance throughout this lecture series that America is a “Christian nation,” and that its identity as such derives from its enshrinement of Christian morality in our laws. In order to make this claim, one would expect him—especially as an academic—to at least address the racism, misogyny, slavery, Indigenous genocide, and countless other immoral actions and beliefs of the majority of the founding figures of this country. Instead of making any such argument, Father Josiah waves off concerns about these aspects of American history as “nonsense.”"
The fact that the United States was founded almost exclusively by Christians is beyond dispute. That one can point to short-comings among the founding fathers is no less true than the fact that most children can identify many short-comings in their own parents. Unless one commits the sin of Ham, however, we don't magnify their short-comings and ignore their virtues. And it is bad history to judge the people of the past by the standards and conditions that prevail today. We should judge people in the past by the standards and conditions that those people would have known. And if you compare the United States to almost every other country at the time of the founding, it comes off looking pretty good, even if comparing the United States at that time with contemporary standards and conditions is another matter. We wouldn't have gotten to where we are on the issues mentioned had we not had those people then, establishing a government based on principles of God given rights and individual liberties. They had short-comings then, and we certainly have them now. They are not the same short-comings, but as we continue to kill nearly a million innocent babies a year, since Roe v. Wade, we are in no position to pat ourselves on the back too much.
"Second, Father Josiah’s argument fuses classic Protestant theological affirmations of America with anachronistic readings of the Bible and the church fathers in order to endorse American exceptionalism from a Christian perspective and to claim that we now live in a “degraded” and “post-Christian” society. For Father Josiah, a culture that has abandoned the horrors described above, given women equal rights to men, abolished slavery, and ended racial segregation and Indigenous genocide has somehow become degraded and post-Christian because it has legalized same-sex marriage."
I rather doubt that Fr. Josiah praised any of the ills in American History. I remember having a lengthy conversation with him about some of the crimes the United States government has perpetrated in its history, and he did not deny in way, shape, or form, that such crimes had been committed. I am sure that he would agree that killing a million innocent babies a year is worse than allowing gay marriage -- in fact, a good case can be made that the sin of abortion has gotten us to where we on the question of sexual immorality -- but condemning one abomination doesn't prevent us from condemning any other abomination.
"Father Josiah thus makes arguments that come close to theonomy, a form of Christian totalitarianism popular in conservative Presbyterian circles. Theonomists hold that there should be no distinction between Christian morality (Christian law) and secular law. The most extreme adherents claim that all criminal punishments in Leviticus should still be in effect. Father Josiah does not explicitly go this far, but he adamantly defends the idea that Christians have the right to “impose their morality” on others because “all legislation is imposed morality.” America’s status is once again exceptional as a Christian nation, despite centuries of genocide and slavery, but will now bring the curse of the prophet Isaiah (Is 5:20) upon us because we now are practicing the “exaltation of sexual anarchy and sexual perversion.”"
This is a very cheap shot, for which no actual evidence is being provided. And indeed all laws reflect someone's morality (or immorality). Why should Christians not try to have the laws reflect Christian morality? Of course we do not want to impose our faith on anyone, but there is no reason why the laws should not reflect Christian principles of morality.
"Relying on these deeply problematic misrepresentations of history and on non-Orthodox theological “foundations,” Father Josiah feels confident enough to openly mock a gay California politician for stating that he has struggled with his sexual orientation and his spirituality. He cackles at this same man for his “intellectual deficiency,” for being “against nature,” and “for living in open sodomy.” He endorses conversion therapy (which is not and never has been a part of the Orthodox response to same-sex attraction), and he audaciously conflates it with Orthodox conversion and repentance."
Since when has it been contrary to the teaching of the Orthodox Church to provide counsel to someone who comes and asks for help overcoming their sin? Whether any approach is actually effective or not is a question of wisdom, but why should we not encourage those struggling with homosexuality to not allow that sin to be their identity, and to see what can be done, with God's grace to overcome it? There are certainly some people who struggle with homosexuality who are probably never going to have a healthy marriage with someone of the opposite sex, but on the other hand, there have been many cases in which someone has fallen into that sin, and yet gone on to do just that. As I have said many times, I think it would be a great service if those who really want to help homosexuals overcome their sin, wrote articles, held conferences, and conducted studies in which  they examined what can and should be done to help people who have this struggle. I am sure Fr. Josiah would agree. The issue of principle here, which cannot be denied without denying the Scriptures and the teachings of the Church, is that the homosexual lifestyle is incompatible with the Christian life.
"Once again, our bishops continue to do nothing. In fact, Father Josiah is allowed to charge $15 just to listen to his hateful and condescending nonsense. The offensive and destructive implications that these attitudes have for marginalized groups throughout American history is massive. Our college-educated young people are rightfully disturbed. I have witnessed significant numbers of people have crises of faith and simply withdraw. I have seen so many others leave altogether. But perhaps most importantly, I have seen our brothers and sisters, faithful Orthodox Christians who struggle against same-sex attraction and work tirelessly to commit themselves to celibacy, be deeply harmed by Father Josiah’s words, and by the implicit condoning of these words by our hierarchs who allow this material to be publicly available or even sold as valuable Orthodox insights. I will conclude by asking my brother clergy and my fellow faithful of the Antiochian Archdiocese and the broader Orthodox Church here in North America: What kind of Church do we want? Is it a Church that alienates the spiritually thirsty from what we all so desperately need? Do we really want to implicitly (or worse yet, explicitly) endorse the words and actions of Father Josiah Trenham as they relate to same-sex attraction, relationships, and marriage? Or is it an open, confident, warm, and loving Church that teaches a message of hope and a path to salvation that is relevant to all? Is it a Church that stands by its traditional teachings in a loving and welcoming way, or is it a Church that allows its priests to incite violence against marginalized groups and to deeply wound its faithful who are doing their best to live according to the fulness of the Gospel?"
In order to stand by the Traditional teachings of the Church in a loving way, or in any way at all, one needs to actually teach them. One needs to have the courage to deliver the whole counsel of God, and not shrink from doing so out of fear that many people do not want to hear it. It is clear that the anonymous author not only has in mind not teaching the Traditions of the Church on these issues, but is content to misrepresent them. Again, if you really believe that active homosexuals will not inherit the Kingdom of God (1 Corinthians 6:9-11), then failing to convey that fact is the least loving thing you could possibly do for a homosexual. Shrinking from delivering the whole counsel of God will make your life easier. You will have fewer people who will be offended by what God has to say on the matter, but that is the cowardly approach. But of course, someone who would write an anonymous open letter has already shown the approach they prefer. If it was up to me, the Christian life would be the easy way, but unfortunately, it is the straight and narrow way... the difficult path, that the Lord says is the only path to salvation (Matthew 7:13-14). We don't get to pick the Truth, our job is simply to teach it and to live it, and I believe Fr. Josiah Trenham has been doing an admirable job of that very thing.

Friday, January 10, 2020

The Antiochians Don't Disappoint (The Fr. Aaron Warwick Affair)

Metropolitan Joseph (Al-Zehlaoui)

Whatever one might say about the Antiochians, they can't say that they are squishy when it comes to those promoting the LGBTQP+ agenda. That's why it was somewhat of a surprise to see that an Antiochian Priest, Fr. Aaron Warwick, had written a pro-homosexual article and published it via a notoriously pro-homosexual website "Orthodoxy in Dialogue." When I first saw it, I sent a message to an Antiochian priest who is a close friend to ask if Fr. Aaron really was an Antiochian priest, and was told that indeed he was.

I expected to see the other shoe drop before too many days passed, and I was not disappointed. Fr. Aaron posted an apology and retraction (of sorts), and then it was announced that his upcoming elevation to the rank of archpriest has been postponed indefinitely.

The Original Article

Fr. Aaron's article contains a number of errors that need to be addressed:
"I will discuss below how the Church deals with these shortcomings for heterosexual couples. It will be apparent that our approach to dealing with heterosexual sins in the Church is quite different from our approach to homosexual sins. With respect to the class of heterosexual sins, we are forgiving, understanding, and pastoral. Following that discussion, I will outline how we generally treat homosexual sins in the Church, which is primarily not pastoral."
I am not sure what sort of pastoral applications Fr. Aaron has seen on the ground that leads him to this conclusion, but I don't know of any priests who do not treat those struggling with homosexuality with pastoral understanding. I have had parishioners who have fallen into heterosexual fornication, and also those who have fallen into homosexual fornication, and I treat the sins themselves in the same way, though how it would apply in a given case depends on more factors than just the nature of the sin. And I have a great deal of compassion for anyone who is sincerely struggling to overcome a sin that is difficult to triumph over, and most sexual sins fall into that category.
"I am unaware of any Orthodox priest who has ever informed a heterosexual that he/she has one option: lifelong celibacy. However, that is exactly what many homosexuals have heard. I will begin with this double standard. Can we as pastors imagine the looks we would get—the complaints of difficulty, of loneliness, etc.—from heterosexuals if we informed them this was their only path to salvation?"
But of course lifelong celibacy is not the only option for those struggling against homosexuality -- they may marry someone of the opposite sex. If they do not wish to do so, that doesn't make lifelong celibacy their only option -- it makes it the only remaining option if they choose not take the other option. And there are heterosexuals who have no other Christian option than celibacy for very long periods of time, for any number of reasons. My wife's Godmother was from the Soviet Union, and she and her three children ended up in a displaced persons camp in Germany at the end of World War II. Her husband had been drafted by the Soviets, and she never heard from him again. She remained celibate for the rest of her life as a result. She could have asked for the Church to declare her husband dead after seven years, but that still would have required at least seven years of celibacy. Even in peace time there are situations in which spouses are separated for very long periods of time, and yet the Church doesn't suggest that maybe it would be OK for them to fool around because celibacy is too much to ask. And of course there are many single Orthodox Christians who are not married, and may have to wait many years before they are able to be married, and yet the Church doesn't suggest that having sex outside of marriage would be OK, because celibacy is difficult.
"In fact, in my experience, the person who has no sexual contact with anyone throughout their life besides their spouse (and only after marriage) is by far in the minority. And by this I do not mean the split is like 51-49, or even 75-25 or 90-10, but more like 99-1—as in, for every one person who lives up to this ideal, 99 fall short."
While this may generally be true in our time, that does not make falling short of the teachings of the Church no big deal. Perhaps the numbers would be less lopsided if we made more of an effort to teach our children to not conform to the world. The solution to this problem is obviously not to say that conforming to the world is acceptable.
"We do not find it necessary to issue statements repeating the fact that we as a Church are opposed to masturbation, fornication, adultery, and divorce. Yet, we do find it necessary to continually repeat that we think homosexuality is a sin and we are opposed to gay marriage. And then we wonder why we have so few homosexuals in our pews or why our young children (who notice the hypocrisy) end up leaving our churches and/or complain about our lack of acceptance of homosexuals."
The reason why this is so, is because no one in the Church is trying to argue that masturbation, fornication, adultery and divorce are not really sins. We do find people arguing that homosexuality is not a sin, and so we have to send our forces to where the war is actually being fought, not to where it isn't. Although, speaking for myself, I have preached many times on these issues too, and certainly deal with them in the context of confession regularly.

And if you want to see churches with more than their fair share of empty pews, take a look at those Protestant churches that have raised the white flag on this issue. Those churches have been emptying out at staggering rates. It turns out that Churches that don't believe anything have a hard time convincing people that they ought to get up on Sunday morning and come to Church.

"In this self-justification, we completely ignore the fact that there is no movement to promote masturbation, or fornication, or adultery, or divorce because these sins are completely normalized not only in our culture, but in our churches. If we held heterosexuals to the same standard to which we hold homosexuals, then my communion line would be very short on Sundays."
If someone commits fornication, adultery, or is the guilty party in a divorce, they are normally going to be denied communion for some period of time. And generally speaking, I think most priests would handle someone falling into those sins pretty much the same way that they would someone falling into homosexual fornication.
"... homosexual acts are one of the least penalized sexual sins in the canons of our Church. The sins of fornication and adultery are treated much more harshly, and the reasons for this are obvious" [emphasis added].
I happened to speak recently to an expert on canon law, and mentioned this ridiculous assertion, and he laughed out loud in response. There is in fact no basis for this claim.

Here is likely the canon that inspired Fr. Aaron's misunderstanding:
"As for sexual intercourse of men with one another, such as practicing double masturbation, it received the stated penance of up to eighty days" (the 9th canon of St. John the Faster).
This canon references the preceding canon, which states:
"Anyone having committed masturbation is penanced forty days, during which he must keep himself alive by xerophagy and must do one hundred metanias (prostrations) every day."
It should be noted that the canon for double masturbation is precisely twice the penance prescribed for solo masturbation because, as St. Nicodemos of the Holy Mountain notes: "each of these offenders is not only hurting himself, but is also hurting his brother, and this makes the sin a double sin" (The Rudder, p. 938).

But St. John the Faster has more to say about homosexual sex. If you keep reading through his canons until you get to Canon 18, he states:
"It has seemed advisable to exclude any man who has been so mad as to copulate with another man from Communion for three years, weeping and fasting, and towards evening confined to xerophagy, and doing two hundred metanias. But as for one who prefers to take it easy, let him fulfill the fifteen years."
So he is saying that by economia, a man who actually copulates with another man might be allowed to be ex communicated for a mere 3 years, with weeping, fasting, eating dry vegetarian food (with no wine or oil), and doing 200 hundred prostrations a day, but if they do not do so, then they should fulfill the strict 15 years of ex communication. The penance for adultery in the 20th Canon of the Council of Ancyra is 7 years, though St. Basil appointed 15 years. It is a principle of applying the canons that you do not want the medicine (the penance) to kill the patient, and so in our times, we would not impose a penance that was even close to the lighter penances, but the point here is that the canons do not treat homosexual sex with less severity than they do fornication or adultery. It is considered to be equal to adultery, in terms of the penance, and generally fornication is given a penance of half the time given to adulterers or homosexuals, and so it actually is treated less severely, though no at all lightly.
"If a homosexual parishioner struggles with remaining sexually chaste, we should treat them no differently from how we treat the heterosexual fornicator. There is no need to shame and guilt them; we should instead work to better align them with the Church’s ideal. We should give them many opportunities to repent and to make sincere efforts to remain sexually chaste. Ultimately, if a homosexual parishioner finds it too lonely and too burdensome not to have a significant other, there really is no reason we cannot treat them the way we treat unmarried heterosexuals. Specifically, we should encourage them to refrain from sexual acts with that significant other, while realizing they may very well fall short of that goal, as do 99% of our most devout and pious heterosexual parishioners."
Are there priests in the Orthodox Church that encourage unmarried heterosexual laymen, who find celibacy too hard, to find and then live together with a "significant other"? If so, I haven't met them.
"In reality, I believe we should also accept that, like most heterosexuals, most homosexuals will find lifelong abstinence to be impracticable. In such cases, it is my strong conviction that we should encourage homosexuals to find a lifelong partner. While I understand this offends the sensibility of many Orthodox Christians, I again point to how our Church has dealt with the sin of divorce and remarriage. Namely, we do not enforce the strict legal and scriptural injunctions of our Church; rather, we act in a pastoral manner, allowing people an opportunity to continue working out their salvation within the Church. We never ask a remarried individual to eventually, some day leave their new spouse so their sin will not persist. We simply recognize this person needs compassion and a chance to do as well as they possibly can. Furthermore, we realize that the best way to encourage this is for an individual to belong to some form of community that requires mutual submission and the restriction of one’s sexual life to focus on no more than one person" [emphasis added].
The equation of homosexual sex with those who are divorced and remarried is a false one. The Church recognizes two biblical reasons for divorce, and then makes some extrapolations from them -- Christ stated that one could divorce for the cause of fornication (i.e. a spouse who is unfaithful), and St. Paul also adds that if one has an unbelieving spouse who abandons them, then this is also a justification for divorce. The Church makes some extrapolations based on these two reasons, and so, for example, if one has a spouse that beats the snot out of them and refuses to stop doing so, the abusive spouse has abandoned them, and they may legitimately divorce them. Divorce is always a sin on the part of at least one spouse, and often on the part of both. A second marriage for any reason is less than the Christian ideal. However, the Church does not consider someone who has been divorced (in a divorce recognized by the Church) and who has been remarried by the Church, to be living in perpetual sin. There have certainly been sins committed that got them into their current situation, but after some penance, there is restoration to communion (see The Basis of the Social Concept of the Russian Orthodox Church, Section X.3).

Homosexual sex, however, is inherently sinful, and there is no situation in which it ceases to be sinful. St. Paul says that those who engage in homosexual sex will not inherit the Kingdom of God (1 Corinthians 6:9-11). He also says this is true of those who continue to engage in adultery, fornication, idolatry, thievery, drunkenness, covetousness, reviling, and extortion -- but not inheriting the Kingdom of God is a pretty big deal, and it is a grave sin for any priest to give his parishioners the impression that maybe it is not such a big deal after all. That is in fact pastoral malpractice.

The Non-Apology Apology


As I had hoped, Fr. Aaron was clearly told to issue a retraction, and to ask that his article be taken down (which "Orthodoxy in Dialogue" chose not to comply with). The unfortunate aspect of his letter of retraction is that he actually did not retract anything he said. He merely expressed sorrow that some people were confused and misunderstood what he actually had said. The problem was not that people didn't understand what he had said -- the problem is that what he said was wrong. But I am glad that his bishops didn't simply ignore it, but instead took swift action.

Furthermore, Fr. Aaron had been scheduled to be elevated to the rank of archpriest on January 19th. The service for the making of an archpriest asks that God may "adorn him [the priest who is being elevated] with virtue to stand at the head of the Presbyters of Thy people, and make him worthy to be a good example to them that are with him..." (The Order of the Office for the Making of a Protopresbyter (Archpriest), vol 1, Book of Needs, (South Canaan, PA: St. Tikhon Seminary Press, 1998, p. 258). This is an honor given to priests after many years of service, and it does suggest that they have been a good example, and should be leaders among their brother priests. Had the Antiochian Archdiocese gone ahead and made him an archpriest after this scandalous article, it would have added insult to injury. Fortunately, they have decided to postpone his elevation indefinitely.


I take no delight in the personal anguish this has no doubt caused Fr. Aaron and his family, but Bishop Basil and Metropolitan Joseph had no good choices here, and they have done the only thing they could have done without the flock being harmed more than they already have been.

It is certainly a good and necessary thing for clergy to consider how best to pastorally deal with those struggling with homosexuality, or any other sexual sin. Suggesting that continuing in that sin might not be so bad after all, however, is not the answer.

Bishop Basil (Essey) of Wichita

Several years ago, an OCA priest published a somewhat similar letter, and the Orthodox Clergy Association of Houston and Southeast Texas wrote a response to that letter. I well remember Bishop Basil, when he visited Houston after this had happened, publicly thanking our clergy association for having done so. I am glad to see that he remains strong in the Faith, and is willing to make difficult decisions to defend that Faith. Many Years to Bishop Basil, and Many Years to Metropolitan Joseph! I only hope that other bishops will take note, and follow their example. The only way to prevent an ever increasing number of such scandalous statements being issued in the future, is to deal swiftly and surely with those that make them.